Bates and Sangrà (2011) argue that successful technology integration requires equal attention being paid to three main elements: pedagogy, technology, and organization.

This is based on Sangrà’s (2008) TOPs Model:
Furthermore, Bates and Sangrà continue to come back to the idea of supporting ‘innovation in teaching’- encouraging it, funding it, and evaluating it.Jonah


Bates, T., & Sangrà, A. (2011). Managing technology in higher education: Strategies for transforming teaching and learning. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

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